Gramàtica

De wikijoan
Salta a la navegació Salta a la cerca

Bibliografia: Grammar for First Certificate (with answers). Cambridge. Self-study grammar reference and practice. Louise Hashemi and Barbara Thomas. De la biblioteca de Torrent de l'Olla (1203781772)

Entry Test he fet malament la 1, 7, 10, 14, 18, 23, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 34, 37, 38, 40, 41, 44, 48

Contingut

1. Present Tenses

Present simple, present continuous, state verbs.

Present Simple

he works in London
he does'nt work in London
where do you work?

We use the present simple:

  • to say when things happen if they take place regularly:
they eat lunch at two o'clock
  • to talk about permanent situations:
I work in London.
  • to state general truths:
The moon goes round the earth.
  • to talk about habits and how often they happen:
you buy new clothes every Saturday.
  • to describe the plots of books and films:
the story begins and ends in Spain. The year is 1937.

Present continuous

We use the present continuous:

  • to talk about the present moment.
I'm wearing a pair of old jeans.
  • to suggest that an action is temporary, often with words like now, at the moment, at present or just.
They're eating lunch at the moment. I'm working in London this week.
  • for an action around the time of speaking, which has begun but is not finished
I'm doing my homework.
  • for changing or developing situations
The earth's temperature is rising.
  • with a word like always or continually, if we want to criticise or complain:
You're always buying new clothes!
  • with always when something unexpected happens several times:
I'm always meeting my neighbour John near the station. I guess he works somewhere near there.

State verbs

These verbs are nearly always used in a simple rather than a continuous tense. They are mostly about thoughts, feelings, belonging and the senses. The following are some important state verbs: believe, know, mean, realise, recognise, remember, suppose, understand, feel, think; adore, dislike, despise, hate, like, love, want, wish, prefer; belong, own, possess; smell, taste, hear, see; contain, deserve, fit, seem, llok, look like, matter.

2. Past Tenses

Past simple, past continuous, used to (to be used to), would.

Past simple

I wanted it
I didn't want it
What did you want?

We use past simple:

  • for completed actions and events in the past
we had an exam on Thursday
  • for a sequence of actions or events
I went round the shops, then I went to the cinema
  • for permanent or long-term situations in the past
I really enjoyed myself when I was a teenager
  • for repeated events
Jack's grandmother went to lots of concerts

Past continuous

They were waiting
She wasn't waiting
Were you waiting?

We use the past continuous:

  • for an activity beginning before a past action and continuing until or after it. The action is usually in the past simple:
We did some revision while we were travelling
  • for two things happening at the same time:
He was buying a burger and all the crowds were walking past.
  • for repeated events, with a word like always or continually, especially if the speaker is criticising the activity:
Your mother was always doing her homework
  • for unfulfilled plans, with verbs like hope, plan, etc.:
I was hoping to find a new jacket
  • State verbs are used in the past simple, not the past continuous:
I didn't know him (not I wasn't knowing him)

used to (do) and would (do)

We use used to and would to talk about past habits when we are emphasising that they are no longer true.

  • He used to read a lot
  • We didn't use to read a lot
  • Did you use to read a lot?
  • He would read a lot.
  • He wouldn't read a lot.
  • Would you read a lot?

Do not confuse used to (do), which is a past tense, with be/get used to (doing), which can be present, past or future.

  • I used to work at weekends
  • I'm used to working at weekends

ex C1 (pag 11)

  • ... but he seem seemed completely ignorant about everyday life.
  • At first he eat ate only bread, but he gradually ... got used to ordinary meals
  • His father ... tied Caspar up

ex C2 (pag 12)

  • Doctor Fisher travelled widely as a young man and he was always keeping always kept a diary.
  • While I was working in Rome, I met a girl who looks looked just like your sister.

ex C4 (pag 13)

  • Are you getting used to / Have you got used to / Are you used to our climate or do you miss the sunshine?
  • I had never stayed in such an expensive hotel before, but I soon was used to got used to.

3. Present perfect and past simple

Present perfect simple and past simple; present perfect simple and continuous

4. Past perfect

Past perfect simple and continuous

5. Future 1

present tenses for future; will; future continuous

Present Simple

  • scheduled events with a future meaning: my plane leaves Edinburgh on Tuesday at 11.05
  • for programmes: the conference starts on Wednesday at 9.30

Present continuous

  • plans which have already been arranged:
what are you doing tomorrow evening? I'm flying to a conference in Amsterdam
I'm having my eyes tested on Saturday afternoon

Will-future

hey'll arrive soon
They won't arrive today
Will they arrive soon?
  • for decisions made at the moment of speaking:
I'll have breakfast in my room
  • for anything which is uncertaing , especially with probably, maybe, I think, I expect, I hope
I probably won't be back on time
  • for situations than we predict will happen but which are not definitely decided or arranged:
in 100 years the world will be a very different place.
  • for something in the future which doesn't depend on a decision by the speaker:
I'll be 40 on my next birthday

Future continuous

She'll be working at 7.30
She won't be working at 7.30
Will she be working at 7.30?

We use the future continuous for an event which is going on at a particular time in the future or over a period of time in the future

Compare:

  • I'll be interviewing him a7 7.30 (the interview begins before 7.30 and continues afterwards)
  • I'm interviewing him a7 7.30 (the interview is arranged to begin at 7.30)

6. Future 2

going to; future in the past; present after time adverbs; future perfect; to be about to

Going to

I'm going to leave
They're not going to leave
Are you going to leave?

going to -> gonna Going to is used extremely often in everyday speech. In formal and written English will and the present tenses are used more often tnan going to.

  • for future actions which we have already decided about
Compare:
We're going to pack up our staff, we're goint to send a message to the mainland and we're goint to leave (they already have a clear plan)
We'll pack up our staff (she might be deciding as she speaks or it might be a simple statement of fact, not a planned action).
  • to predict something, when we already see evidence for our prediction
It's going to rain soon

Present tenses in future clauses

In clauses referring to future time and beginning with when, until, before, after, as soon as, we usen the present tense or the present perfect:

Everyone's going to be very surprised when you arrive
And we're not going to talk to any reporters until we've had a long sleep

Future in the past (was/were going to)

  • to talk about something which was planned but did not or will not happen:
You were going to stay here for at least a year
  • to show that we don't mind changing our plans:
-Are you busy this evening? - Well, I was going to write some letters.

Future perfect simple and future perfect continuous

We use the future perfect simple for an action which will be complete at a point of time in the future. It is usual to mention the point in time.

I'll have finished by six o'clock
He won't have finished by six o'clock
Will you have finished by six o'clock?

We use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long an action will have lasted up to a point in the future. It is usually necessary to mention the point ot time and the length of time:

By one o'clock, I'll have been waiting for three hours.
She won't have been waiting for long.
Will they have been waiting for a long time?

To be about to

I'm anout to go out.
He isn't not about to go out.
Are you about to go out?

We use to be about to to talk about something which is going to happen very soon and for which we are already preparing.

In the negative, to be about to often means 'do not intend to':

we are'nt about to change the rules just because you don't like them.

Exercicis

Ex. corregir els que estiguin malament

  • I'm not going to pay you until you have cleaned up all this mess.
  • Before we're going to get we get on the train, I'm going to check that we have all our luggage
  • As soon as the guests have unpacked, you can show them round the college.
  • Paul will probably arrive after all the others will have started have started work.
  • When you'll see you see David, will you ask him if he wants to come to the cinema with us?
  • I'll collect your things from the cleaners when I'm in town.
  • Margaret's going to phone as soon as she'll have found she's (she has) found out what the tickets will cost.

Writing

Dear Mark,

Would you like to come on a weekend trip with me and two friends in ten days'time? Robin was going to come, but now she's in hospital, I'm sorry to say!

We've booked beds at the Woodlands Hostel, near the famous waterfall. On Saturday we're going to walk to the waterfall and perhaps have a picnic there. If we're not tired we're going to climb in the afternoon and then we're going to have a barbecue at the hostel in the evening. We need to take plenty of food. We also need sleeping bags. I can lend you one if you haven't got one. The hostel only charges 15p per night. We just have to spend half an hour a day helping with cleaning.

We're going to catch the 5.45 train on Friday to come back on Sunday afternoon. I know this is rather sudden but I really hope you can join us. I'm sure we're going to have a great time.

Let me know as soon as possible what you think.

Love, Leah

7. Adjectives

Adjective order: we usually begin with adjectives which give an opinion or general impression:

a dangerous old car; a delicate oval tray; a valuable silver spoon

Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed

we use the -ed form to describe our feelings: I'm tired

we use the -ing form to describe the things which make us feel like this: this work is tiring

Compare: It's a boring file. The visitors are bored

8. Adverbs

Formation of adverbs

Adjectives (happy, beautiful) tell us about a noun. Adverbs (happily, beuatifully) tell us about a verb, and adjective or another verb. They give us information about time (when?), place (where?), manner (how?) and frequency (how often?):

Today I feel happy because the weather is beautiful. Some children are playing happilly in the street and a blackbird is singing beautifully in a tree outside.

Some verbs are phrases:

He's arriving on Tuesday, so we're meeting him at the station

Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to ad adjective:

beautiful -> beautifully; angry -> angrily; miserable -> miserably; extreme -> extremely

An adjective ending in -ly (e.g. friendly, likely, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, ugly) cannot be made into an adverb. We have to use a phrase instead:

She started the interview in a friendly manner.
He laughed in a silly way

Adverbs and adjectives easily confused

Some adjectives and adverbs have the same form. Some common ones are: fast, early, hard, late, daily, weekly, monthly.

He caught the fast train. He ran fast to catch the train.
She's a hard worker. She works hard.
My daily newspaper costs 50p. I swim daily.

Hard and hardly are both adverbs but they have different menanings. Hardly means almost not:

She hardly noticed when he came into the room (=she almost didn't notice)

Late and lately are both adverbs but they have different menanings. Lately means recently:

I have'nt read any books lately

The adverb for good is well:

It was a good concert; The musicians played well

Comparative and superlative adverbs

Most adverbs use more or less to make comparatives and the most or the least to make superlatives.

My brother speaks Italian more fluently than I do.
I speak Italian less fluently than my brother does
Out of all the students, Maria speaks English the most fluently

I work hard, my sister works harder than I do but Alex works the hardest.

Modifying adverbs and adjectives

Some adverbs are used to change the strength of adjectives or adverbs.

From stronger to weaker: :incredibly, extremely, really, very, rather, fairly, quite, slightly

He dances extremely well.
The weather was very hot.
He spoke to her rather fiercely.
The house was quite old.

Exercicis

p69.5

My grandmother drivers less careful carefully than she used to.
I never have bought have never bought anything from that expensive shop over there.
My sister doesn't make friends as easy than as I do.
Jon can't go out much at the moment as he has to study hardly hard for his degree.

(hard és un dels casos especials que és igual l'adjectiu i l'adverb)

p70

calm -> calmly
luck -> luckily

Writing

My room is quite small. I have a special bed which is high up. I have to go up a little ladder to reach it. Under the bed I have a desk, where I do my homework, and a small bookshelf for reference books. There are two cupboards, one quite small and one bigger one, where I keep all my clothes and other things.

The best improvement would be to have a bigger room, but that's not possible. So, I woul like to have some new shelves with plenty of space for my CD player and all my CDs. I'd also like to have a giant noticeboard above my bed. I have lots of posters of my favourite singers and sports champions and I'd like to display them properly.

Lastly, I'd like to have my room painted in a better colour. it's pale blue at the moment. I'd like a more exciting colour, like red or purple. But it may be difficult to persuade my parents about that.

9. Questions

Grammar

Making yes/no questions

  • To make questions which can be answered with yes or no, we put the auxiliary verb before its subject:
You're going on holiday soon. Are you going on holyday soon?
He's packed his case. Has he packed his case?
  • To make questions in the present simple or the past simple, we use the auxiliary verb do(es) or did to make the question:
I like Italy. Do you like Italy?
She prefers Greece. Does she prefer Greece? (not Does she prefers Greece?)
They went to Corsica. Did they go to Corsica?
  • To make questions with the verb to be, we put to be before the subject:
They're in Madrid today. Are they in Madrid today?
  • To make questions with modal verbs, we put the modal verb before the subject:
We can stay here. Can we stay here?

We make negative questions in the same way:

They like big cities. Don't they like big cities?
She can't stay here. Can't she stay here?

Short answers

We answer a yes/no question using the same auxiliary or modal verb as in the question.

  • If we agree with a positive question, the answer is yes:
Are you going to Greece? Yes, I am.
Did you like the hotel? Yes, I did.
  • If we agree with a negative question, the answer is no:
Aren't you going to Greece? No, I'm not.
Didn't you like the hotel? No, I didn't.
  • If we disagree with a positive question, the answer is no:
Are you going to Greece? No, I'm not.
Did you like the hotel? No, I didn't.
  • If we disagree with a negative question, the answer is yes:
Aren't you going to Greece? Yes, I am.
Didn't you like the hotel? Yes, I did.

Making questions with questions words (who, what, where, wht, how, which)

  • When we use what, which or who to make questions about the subject of the verb we do not change the word order (unlike yes/no questions):
The pool looks too small. What looks too small?
This hotel offers the best view. Which hotel offers the best view?
  • We make questions abount all other parts of the sentence in the same way as yes/no questions:
They'll be in Madrid tomorrow. When will they be in Madrid?
We can't stay here because it's full. Why can't we stay here?
She prefers to travel by train. How does she prefer to travel?

Compare these subject and object questions:

Mollu's visiting Susan
Who's visiting Susan? Molly (=subject)
Who's Molly visiting? Susan (=object)

In a subject question, who is always followed by a singular verb:

Who is comint to your party? (not Who are coming...?)

unless two or more people are actually mentioned in the question:

Who are your favourite singers?

Remember the difference between these questions with like:

What does Molly like? She likes dancing.
What does Molly look like? She's pretty.
What's Molly like? (=tell me about her character/appearance) She's intelligent and pretty.

Question tags

We often make a statement into a question by adding a question tag at the end. The verb in the tag must match the form of the auxiliary verb in the statement.

  • If the statement is positive, the tag is negative:
They're going to Greece, aren't they? (speaker expects the answer yes)
  • If the statement is negative, the tag is positive:
You aren't going to Greece, are you? (speaker expects the answer no)
  • We make question tags in the present simple or past simple with do(es) or did for all verbs except to be:
You like the seasid, don't you?
Molly prefers Greece, doesn't she?
Your friends aren't in Madrid now, are they?
  • We make question tags with the same auxiliary or modal as in the statement:
We can stay here, can't we?
They haven't arrived yet, have they?
  • The question tag for let's is shall we:
Let's go to France, shall we?
  • The question tag for I am is aren't I:
I'm doing the right exercice, aren't I?
  • The question tag for I'm not is am I?:
I'm not in the right place, am I?

Agreeing with statements

To agree with statement we use so (for positive statements) and neither or nor (for negative statements) and put the verb before its subject. We can do this:

We're lost. So am I.
I wen't to Spain last year. So did they.
I don't want to quarrel. Neither do I.
He can't speak French. Nor can I.

Exercices

C1

  • We haven't got to do the washing-up, do we have we?
  • You weren't planning to leave early, were you?
  • You went to school in Paris, haven't you didn't you?
  • Where both your brothers playing in the match?
  • What is does Julie's brother look like? Also: What is Julie's brother like?

C2

  • Where would you like to go on holiday? The Caribbean
  • Did you finnish all the ice cream? No, I didn't. There's something in the fridge.
  • How much long do you spend on your homework? About an hour, usually
  • Did you try driving a kart? Have you ever tried windsurfing? No, I haven't. But I'd love to.
  • What do you usually do in the evenging? Sometimes I watch a film and other times I read.
  • How often do you see your parents? About once a week. It depends how busy I am.
  • Did you enjoy the party? Not really. The music wasn't good, and the peoople weren't very interesting.
  • Why are were you late for school this morning? Because I overslept.

C3

  • What was Brian Baines celebrating last night? His appointment as manager of Farley City F.C.
  • Where was he born? In Farley.
  • Who telephoned Brian? Who did Brian telephone? His wife Shirley.
  • When did he telephoned telephone her? As soon as he had signed the contract.
  • How many children do they have? Three. (also: How many children have they got?)
  • Why is she really pleased? Because their children will be able to settle at schools in Farley.
  • Who are is looking forward to welcoming them? Their many old friends.

C4

  • He always forgets his homework, doesn't he?
  • The teachers didn't see me, did they?
  • You would like to come with us, wouldn't you?
  • I've got plenty of time, not do I? Haven't I
  • Let's have another coffe, shall we?
  • It couldn't possibly rain, isn't it? could it?
  • Those men played really well, didn't they?
  • Molly will have to tell the truth, doesn't she? won't she?
  • We can't stop here, can we?
  • You promise you'll never tell anyone. don't you?

C5

  • I started learning English when I was ten. So did I (d)
  • I didn't find it very easy. Neither did I (c)
  • I was always trying to sing English songs. So was I (h)
  • But I couldn't understand the words at first. Neither could I (g)
  • I'm quite good at English now. So am I (a)
  • I've read a couple of novels in English. Sso have I (f)
  • I won't have many problems in England, I guess. Neither will I (b)
  • And I must do my homework now. So must I (e)

10. Countable and uncountable nouns; articles

Grammar

1. Countable and uncountable nouns

countable nouns can be singular (a company, a job, a biscuit) or plural (many companies, few jobs, some biscuits).

uncountable nouns cannot be plural (health, clothing clothings), take a singular verb (petrol is expensive, exercice is good), use certain other words to refer to quantity (a piece of furniture, a sum of money).

Many nouns can be countable and uncountable, but with different meanings:

  • These grammar exercices are easy / Exercice is gook for you.
  • The gallery was showing works by several artists / I don't enjoy hard work.

2. Els articles a (an), the i -(no article, sense article)

  • A (an) means one of many. Introduces a new item of information. Use it with singular countable nouns.
  • The means the only one or the particular one. Introduces: items he have mentioned before or when the speaker and listener know which items we are talking about. Use it with countable and uncountable.
  • no article. Means all or that quantity is uncertain on unimportant. Introduces things in a general sense. Uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns.

There's a supermarket in most towns nowadays (=one of many that exist)
We buy most of our food from the local supermarket (=one particular supermarket)
have you got a pen? / the pen is by the phone
I don't like the music my brother plays. Music helps me to concentrate when I'm working.
We planned the trees in our garden five years ago. / Trees are easily damaged by pollution.
The cheese is in the fridge. / Help yourself to cheese and biscuits (as much cheese and as many biscuits as you want).
People used to believe the moon was a goddess.

3. Special uses of articles

Places

We use the with places: the Black Sea, the Danube, the Far East, the Midlands, the Philippines, the United States, the Kalahari, the Alps.

We say: the sea, the cost, the seaside, the country, the mountains, the hills.

We do not use the with

lakes (Lake Garda)
continents, most countries, states, cities, towns and villages: Europe, France, Florida, Rome. But we say: The Netherlands, The Hague.
buildings and locations that use the name of their town in the name: Manchester Airport, Cardiff Station.

Jobs: I'm a doctor

Definitions: A department store is a shop which sells a wide range of goods.

Exclamations: what an exciting film!

Fixed expressions: we travel by train, by bus; We have lunc/dinner at one; we listen to the radio; We play the guitar; We go to the cinema.

we say: My mother is at work but My mother is at the office

11. Pronouns and determiners

possessives: reflexive pronouns; each other etc.; there and it; someone etc.; all, most and some; each and every; both, neither, etc.

Grammar

Possessive 's and of

The position of the apostrophe is important:

  • my brother's friends
  • my brothers' friends

I stayed at Simon's (house is omitted)

We use 's with people, countries and animals:

The girl's clothes were very dirty

and with time expressions:

I want to go on a week's holiday

but we usuallu use of instead of 's with things:

What's the price of that holiday?

Reflexive pronouns

myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves themselves
Tim hurt himself when he fell off his bike

but

Sam cried when Tim hurt him

for emphasis: I went to this place myself to see what it was really like

We don't usually use a reflexive pronoun after wash, shave and dress but we can for emphasis:

She dressed quicly.
The little girl managed to dress herself quickly

Possessive pronouns and adjectives

Possessive pronouns: mine yours his hers ours theirs
Poseessive adjectives: my your his her its our their

They washed their clothes in the river

We can say:

my friends or some friends of mine/yours/Tim's

We use a possessive adjective + own to emphasise possession:

I'd rather have my own apartment or I'd rather have an apartment of my own

I'm going on my own or I'm going by myself

I make my own clothes or I make my clothes myself

Each other, one another and someone else

  • The two boys hurt themselves (=each boy was hurt)
  • The two boys hurt each other/one another (=when they had a fight)
  • The two boys hurt someone else (=together they hurt a third person)
They borrow each other's /one another's shoes because they take the same size

There and it + the verb to be

There are some lovely apartments
There's a tour guide
There's a hotel by the sea. It's quite old
It's twenty past five and it's sunny here in New York
It's only a few metres from the beach
It's surprising to see you here
It's a waste of time coming here

Someone, anywhere, everybody, etc.

Words like someone,anywhere, etc. follows the same rules as some and any:

Some is used in positive sentences:

I want to go somewhere sunny

Any is used in questions and negative sentences:

Are you interested in anywhere in particular?
I haven't got anything as cheap as that this year

Any is also used in positive statements to show it doesn't matter which:

Anywhere quiet will be fine

All, most and some

All hotels have bedrooms
Most hotels have a restaurant
Some hotels have a private beach
All (of) the hotels (in this street) have a restaurant
Most of the hotels (in this town) are expensive
Some of the hotels (in the brochure) have a swimming pool

Each and every

Each and every can be used with the same meaning:

Every/Each apartment has a balcony

but sometimes have different meanings:

  • Each is used for individual things or people in a group:
Each child drew a picture of her own parents
  • Every emphasises that all the people or things in a group are included:
Every brochure you've shown me...

Both, neither, either and none

We use both, neither, either and none when we refer to two items.

Both places are too noisy
Either/Neither place suits me.
Which holiday would you prefer? Either/Neither
Which holiday did you enjoy? Both
Both the Hotel Flora and the Hotel Princess have a good restaurant
Neither the Hotel Flora nor the Hotel Princess has a restaurant
I'd like to stay at either the Hotel Flora or the Hotel Princess
None of the apartments has/have a balcony
None of them has/have a balcony

12. Modals 1

use of modals; obligation; necessity

Grammar

Use of modals

The modal verbs can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will and would:

  • are always used before another verb: He can swim
  • never change (they don't add -s or -ed or -ing)
  • are followed by a verb in its infinitive form without to: You should get up earlier (not You should to get up earlier)

Bat you say: you ought to get up earlier

  • are immediately followed by not in the negative:
You should not (or shouldn't) be late for college

but notice that we say:

You ought not to be late for college
  • go immediately before the subject in a question:
Could you wake me up?

Obligation.

Must and have to

We must leave now. He has to leave now
Must we leave now? Do we have to leave now?

For obligation, we can often use must or have to:

I must go now or I'll miss the bus. Or I have to go now or I'll miss the bus

We use must to give orders or strong advice, including to ourselves:

You must tell me everything
She must be home by midnight
You must come to the hotel one day
I must go now

When there is a rule or where the obligation does not come from the speaker, must is possible but have to is more usual:

You have to pay to park your car here

We usually use have to for habits:

I have to get up early to cook breakfast

We only use must in the present tense. In all other tenses, we use have to:

I had to work every day (past simple)
I'll have to work longer hours (future)
If I got the job, I'd (would) have to buy a car (conditional)

Mustn't and don't have to

We mustn't be late
We don't have to be early

Although must and have to express obligation, mustn't and don't have to have different meanings. Mustn't means don't do it and don't have to means it's not necessary to do it.

I mustn't wear jeans at work (=it is wrong to do this, it isn't allowed)
You don't have to stay at school until you're 18 (=you are not obliged to but you can if you want)

Should

When we are talking about the right thing to do, we use should:

He should take more care when he's cycling
I shouldn't spend so much time watching TV

To talk abount the past, we use should have + past participle:

I should have told the truth
We shouldn't have lent her that money

Necessity

We can use need like a normal main verb in all the tenses, but it can also be a modal verb in questions and in the negative:

Need I come with you?
I needn't come (if I don't want to)

In positive statements, we say:

I need to come (not I need come)

To talk about the past, we say:

He needed to buy some food
He didn't need to buy any food

Needn't have has a different meaning:

He needn't have bought any food (=he bought food but it wasn't necessary)

Modals 2

pemission; requests; offers; suggestions; orders; advice

Grammar

Asking for and giving permission

Can I leave my bag here while I look round the museum? (=a simple request which expects the answer yes)
Could I borrow you car for a few days? (=more polite or a request which is less sure of the answer being yes)
May I sit here? (=a more formal request, particulary to a stranger)

We usually answer by saying:

Of course (you can). /OK / Certainly
I 'm afraid not (=polite)/No, you can't (=not very polite)

Making requests

Can you pass me the bread?
Will you get me some stamps from the post office?

More polite:

Could you tell me where the station is?
Would you lend me your camera?

We answer: Of course (I can/I will). OK. I'm sorry I can't.

We never use May you to ask someone to do something:

not May you give me a lift?

Making offers

Can I/we help you to cook dinner?
Shall I/we clean the car for you?:I can/I could/I'll lend you some money
Why don't I carry that bag for you?

Making suggestions

Shall I/we go by bicycle today?:Why don't I/we go by bicycle today?
Let's go by bicycle today?:How about going by bicycle today?
What abount going by bicycle today?

I we are less sure:

We could go by bicycle today

Giving orders and advice

To give orders and advice, we use must (strong), had better, ought to/should, could (less strong)

You really must start looking for a job (=an order, or this is my opinion which I feel very strongly about)
You'd better start looking for a job (=advive. Otherwise you may regret it)
You should/ought to start looking for a job (=advice)
You could start looking for a job (=this is only a suggestion)

In the negative we use had better not and oughtn't to/shouldn't):

You'd better not forget to post that application form
You shouldn't/ought not to wear those clothes for the interview.

We don't use mustn't or couldn't when giving advice.

To talk about the past we say:

You should have/ought to have accepted that job

In the negative we say:

You shouldn't have/ought not to have worn those clothes